Gnome, a tale of a dead fail whale with a happy ending …

I moved my window manager from xfce to gnome today, and spent most of the day so far getting gdm3 to work. For a while, I was using two window managers, then narrowed it down to gdm3 and uninstalled the other one.

The login manager failed to come up, and for most of this morning I was stuck in a character console. In gnu/linux, strange things happen when you read a lot of documentation and error messages. I began to see artifacts that are in themselves hilarious, although after hours of poring through debug messages and error messages, I first thought I needed a long break. But no. The same phrase can be google’d, and others have reported seeing it, thus confirming my strange experience.

The error I saw was

We failed, but the fail whale is dead. Sorry.

So, what on Earth is a “fail whale”? It appears to mean that a part of the server that issues error messages, has died. Apparently, gdm3 itself didn’t die, since running ps showed that it was still running, although not running a login screen.

It turns out that the “fail whale” was a meme created by someone named Yiying Liu to refer to errors reported by Twitter. I guess I missed out on that meme.

Somewhere in the thicket of error and debug messages was a reference to the fact that /usr/share/gnome-sessions/sessions/ubuntu.session did not exist. I went to that location as root, and symlinked gnome.session to ubuntu.session.

ln -s gnome.session ubuntu.session

That appeared to be all that was needed. I was able to log on to a gnome desktop.

BoUoW: Bash on Ubuntu on Windows

Tux is telling you the most current Ubuntu running for Windows for BoUoW.

I am not proud of possibly inventing the ugly acronym “BOUOW”, but “BASH on Ubuntu on Windows” appears to compel it. Maybe we can pronounce it “bow-wow” — not sure if that’s complementary. Just did a Google search, and, no, as predicted I couldn’t have invented it: It is variously acronymed: B.O.U.O.W., or BoUoW. It has been around since at least March of 2016, giving end users, computer geeks, and developers plenty of time to come up with something of a nickname or acronym.

But I actually mean to praise BoUoW, and to give it considerably high praise. This is a brave move on Microsoft’s part, and a long time coming. MS has made *NIX access available in its kernel for some time now, thus making *NIX conventions possible on the command line like certain commands in the Power Shell. The user has to enable the capability in the Windows 10 settings (“Windows Subsystem for Linux” (WSL)), and as Admin, the kernel has to be set to “Developer mode”, and follow the instructions on the MSDN website to download binaries and to enable a bash shell on either the command line or PowerShell.

BoUoW takes advantage of the WSL to do impressive things like use the same network stack as Windows 10 itself. This is because with WSL enabled, a UNIX command such as SSH can now make calls directly to the Windows 10 kernel to access the network stack.

This is, by Microsoft’s admission, a work in progress. It would worry me if they would not have said that. But lots of things do work. vi works and is symlinked (or somehow aliased) to vim. The bash shell comes with some other common aliases like “ll” for “ls -l”, for instance, and apparently, as part of the installation, you actually have a miniature version of Ubuntu, complete with a C compiler, and an image of Ruby, Perl, Python, and if it isn’t installed, you can always use “apt-get” to install it.

One of the security features has the disadvantage of conducting an install of BoUoW separately for each user. If a user types “bash” in a cmd window, and if BoUoW is not installed for that user, the install happens all over again, and the image goes under each user’s AppData directory requesting a BoUoW install. If you are using an SSD for C: drive like me, then you might find that limiting due to a shortage of space.

There are many things not recommended yet. If you are a serious web developer, for example, you would find many of the things you want, such as mySQL, are not currently working the right way. If you are a systems programmer, then you’ll find that ps and top only work for unix-like commands, so I wouldn’t use BoUoW for any serious process management. That being said, it does contain the old standbys: grep, sed, and awk.

The compiling and output of my “Hello, world!” program, also showing the source code.

gcc had to be installed separately. The binary it created for my “Hello, world!” program lacks the Microsoft .exe extension. And as it is for Unix binaries, it lacks any default extension. It is using gcc version 4.8.4. The current version is 6.3. This older gcc usually won’t pose a problem for most users.

The current stable Ubuntu is 16.04. BoUoW uses the previous stable version, 14.04, and thus has slightly older versions of Perl (5.18), Python (2.7.6), bash (4.3.11), Ruby (1.8) (available using apt-get), vim (7.4), and other software. Vim, however, appears to be the “large” version, which is expandable, using plugins like Vundle, which is good news. I don’t suspect that these slightly older versions would cause anyone problems, except possibly for Python, which has gone all the way up to version 3.5.2 since. You are warned also that it is possible that under Python or Perl, you might run into problems due to not all of their libraries running correctly under BoUoW. Not surprising, since Python has hundreds of installable libraries and Perl has thousands of them. Could take a while.


YALD (yet another linux distro) Knoppix 7.4.2

Linux Pro Magazine, featuring GIMP in its Winter 2015 Edition.

To add to the distros I have already reviewed in terms of their suitability for running on the Hewlett-Packard TX2 or TM2 tablets, I had not said anything about the Knoppix distribution specifically. I saw one sold in a special edition of Linux Pro Magazine, and in a fit of irrational impulse purchasing, ponied up my 20 bucks with tax, and tried it on my laptop.

Linux Pro Magazine was using the Knoppix CD to actually showcase GIMP, but with pretty close to the most recent versions of GIMP installed on all my windows and Linux installations (I do run a blog after all), I do not need to be sold on GIMP. It’s a great free open-source package for editing and manipulating photos, in the way of Photoshop. It would have been nice if they could have an article on how to write your own scripts for the script-fu feature in GIMP. This ever elusive and mysterious feature remains largely shrouded in secrecy except for the few websites to post a page or so on it.

But I wanted to see how the latest Knoppix ran on my laptop. Indeed, version 7.4.2 of Knoppix is the latest version, according to the website. Knoppix is the Linux distribution that is known for having a live operating system on it, so if you want to try Knoppix, there is no installation needed. My HP TM2, in the grand tradition of “modern” computers having fewer and fewer media inputs than ever before, comes without a built-in DVD-R drive. So, I plugged a USB2 one in (the TX2 has no USB3 inputs, not that it would matter for a DVD-R anyway) and booted into Knoppix.

And I was pleasantly surprised to find that just about everything seemed to work. It recognized my wi-fi, and I found I could use pen, mouse, and screen touch without any lag. I was able to see and hear videos on YouTube. And of course, GIMP ran. On a live DVD, GIMP took about 40 seconds to start (starting from an installation on my hard disk on my PC took under 5 seconds in Ubuntu Studio).

Back to Knoppix. As expected, the screen rotation key is not mapped. However, I can see no Linux program that does this. Postings to many fora on the topic go unanswered. There was one discussion on rotation with the Nvidia chipset, but the TM2 uses Intel for video, so I was out of luck. Since I need to rotate the screen frequently in my work, this has been the one limitation that has stopped me from using Linux on my laptops.

BASH prompts: Box-drawing characters

An xterm session with BASH prompts containing box-drawing characters. The rest of the screen is the output of repeated fortune commands.

I used to be a big user of xterm’s box drawing characters. I hadn’t been aware that they could be used in prompts.

But I recently heard a (probably dated) discussion on how box drawing characters could be used in a command prompt.

I think that’s a great idea, however, the big problem I found was to do it in a way that correctly turn off the drawing so that you could display text again. Otherwise a lot of text ends up looking garbled.

First, let me say that I used a “twtty” example code at Giles Orr’s BASH prompt website which I modified to allow actual box prompts. A clue was provided in the HOWTO here, where they showed, in a very brief way, the entire “catalogue” of “high-bit” ANSI characters, which I pasted into an xterm:

echo -e "�33(0abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz�33(B"

The high-bit characters are whatever you type in lowercase after you output the ANSI escape sequence “�33(0“, I needed the echo command (echo -e) to get that to work. The output of echo -e can be stored in a string like this:

local box1=`echo -e "�33(0qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq�33(B"

�33(0 turns on ANSI escapes, while �33(B turns it off. The string “qqqq”… are the characters used to draw a horizontal line. There were some other tweaks I did to his code to become more complete in box characters for a two-line prompt, but it had the side effect of not going all the way across the screen like the original. Adding six characters fixed it, albeit in a kludgy kind of way:

ESC_IN=`echo -e "�33(0"`  # turn on box-drawing
ESC_OUT=`echo -e "�33(B"` # turn off box-drawing

function prompt_command {
    #   Find the width of the prompt:

    #   Add all the accessories below ...
    local l="${ESC_IN}l${ESC_OUT}"
    local m="${ESC_IN}m${ESC_OUT}"
    local temp="${l}-(${usernam}@${hostnam}:${cur_tty})---(${PWD})--"

    let fillsize=${TERMWIDTH}-${#temp}+6

What I mean by “kludgy” is that I simply added a “6” on the last line above which controls the number of characters required for the first line of the prompt to go across the screen. It’s unlikely that the terminal width will ever need to be less than 6.

I added two variables which are occasionally useful: $ESC_IN for turning on the ANSI feature, and $ESC_OUT for turning it off. Inside the function prompt_command, I added variables $l and $m since his code uses dashes and I wanted the ANSI horizontal lines instead. $l is for the ANSI output for the letter “l”; while $m is for the letter “m” in ANSI. These generate two corners of the box which occur on the far left of the prompt. And they do join up. The $l is used in the next statement below in the form of ${l} to begin making the string $temp. I could have done something with the dashes in this string such as use “${ESC_IN}qqq${ESC_OUT}” in place of “—“, but there were problems if I was too overzealous, so some dashes were left as is.

The main problem was to get a horizontal line in place of the string “——————————————————” which went on indefinitely. Those were replaced by lowercase “q” letters without the ANSI escapes. These were better placed in a statement nearby:

if [ "$fillsize" -gt "0" ]
    #   It's theoretically possible someone could need more 
    #   dashes than above, but very unlikely!  HOWTO users, 
    #   the above should be ONE LINE, it may not cut and
    #   paste properly

where $ESC_IN and $ESC_OUT were used in the next statement below the comments. You can’t put them inside the first $fill assignment, because the second assignment cuts off the end including $ESC_OUT should you attempt to do it that way.

Manjaro is still the best for my laptop

A popular distro is Mint. It’s a great distro, I have it installed on my home theatre. It’s great because all the apps are up-to-date (without being bleeding-edge and unstable), and I can chuck as many applications as I like on it with all the storage space my home theatre has. I have 55 days’ worth of music cued up on Brasero. But since I listen to classical, blues and jazz the most, that number comes down to 3 days’ worth of music frequently listened to. I have any public-domain documentaries and movies I can find. I shnagged the original Gilligan’s Island movie from They also have what many believe to be the worst movies of all time, such as Plan 9 From Outer Space (isn’t there an operating system called “Plan 9”?), a low-budget McCarthy-era sci-fi movie with bad acting and bad writing. The last time I watched Plan 9, I think I lasted 30 minutes before switching it off and moving on to other things. That’s a record for me. Don’t have it cued up to play on your first date with someone. And maybe not your second. I’ve been married 20 years, and my wife doesn’t know I have a copy of Plan 9 on video.

I was impressed with Mint, and kept it on my home theatre. It was Mint 14, and so I thought I would give it a second chance on my laptop. Same problems as before. Jumpy mouse which invokes click events when it randomly jumps somewhere. Wi-fi doesn’t work. Generally pretty bad.

I could have gone back to getting out my DVD of Manjaro 0.8.0, but instead I decided to download 0.8.2, the latest stable version. The desktop is improved incredibly, and it has an app I don’t recognise which resides on the desktop  The mouse is stable, recognizes pen and touch, and my WiFi works right down to the toggle switch on the front of my case. 0.8.3 promises to be even better, but since that’s beta right now, I’ll wait a while.

Manjaro is not for everyone, but I feel it is meant especially for people like me that don’t have much HD space (10GB is reserved for Linux and 2gigs for swap in my case), and sometimes need to have a second OS for their own reasons. Or maybe no reason.

Manjaro gets kudos for being the ideal small linux for my needs

After all is said and done, I have Manjaro running on TX2. But instead of running it on a USB, I’m running it from my hard drive, an SSD in this case. Manjaro is an offshoot of ArchLinux, but with intentions to be more user-friendly. Manjaro is new, having only reached version 0.8.0 by the end of August.

Wired, wireless, and mice of all descriptions (pen, touchpad, touchscreen) all work nicely, and fit inside of a 10GB partition I prepared for it. I gave it 2GB swap. When installing to such a small system, I didn’t waste time making additional partitions for /usr, /tmp, and /home like I always do. Instead, I just dumped the whole OS under /.

I have posted some nerdy and not-so-nerdy questions on their forums, and have been happy with their answers. From a person who comes from a traditional UNIX background (Solaris/SUN-OS, IBM, BSD, etc — LINUX came later for me, but the main distros still have a filesystem that follows FSSTND guidelines), there are some profoundly non-standard liberties that the Manjaro team took with the operating system’s design, and that is to funnel a good deal of /etc into /root. I am not sure of the benefit of that (I am guessing security would be the reason), but it does make it difficult for me, a UNIX nerd, to apply my knowledge of a typical UNIX filesystem. It appears as though most of the hundreds of files that are stored under /root consist of config files and password files.

Manjaro: Another one to add to my ratings scale

Manjaro is a new, user-friendly offshoot of Arch Linux, and promises to be simpler to install. I saw a video on exactly what was “easy” about it, and was sold. I burned myself an Xfce ISO image on a DVD, and the fact that the touchscreen, stylus, and touchpad on my HP-TX2 all worked made me almost wet myself. All right, I say, let’s commit this to USB, and we’ll worry about what doesn’t work later (which at this point was the camera, sound, and network printer detection — comparatively easy stuff, most often software-related).

That, along with the speed and ease of use (I think it is much noticeably easier to use as advertised, but don’t expect ease on the level of Mint or Ubuntu) added to its score.

So far, 13 points on the ratings scale. Since this scale is out of 18 if only I could get the rest of the stuff to work, it could have the remaining 5 points. But alas, I cannot give it to them. The USB failed to reboot properly, and I am considering trying again, or trying another image from the distro.

Mint and Puppy still tie for first, in all of their half-configured, clunky glory!


Tiny Linux Distros on an HP TX2 TouchSmart Laptop

As you know, I have been looking for an ideal distro for installation on to a USB stick. The biggest hurdle for the distros is to recognise my devices, which include a finger/pen touch screen, a mouse touchpad, stereo speakers, a webcam, stereo microphones, and a fingerprint scanner. Knowing the buttons used to flip the screen, mute and adjust volume wouldn’t hurt either. And oh yeah, Wi-Fi.

Yup, my laptop is pretty tricked out. And I don’t want to spend forever researching and finding out what proprietary drivers are needed for what devices, what to configure, and so on. There are just too many. I also can’t use my hard drive for the installation, since the SSD is too small. Thus, I am left with settling for installing on to a USB stick, and the OS must auto-detect and auto-install as many device drivers as possible before I have to actually dig in and configure things by hand.

I began with six candidates, but ended up with 11 candidates, since so many of them were, as I feared, feature-poor. I assigned a scoring system, and believe I have a reliable way (at least for me) of comparing how well the distros in question interact with my beast of a laptop.

Distro Score Comments
ArchBang Linux 4 This philosophy of this distro was premised on the idea that “I know what I’m doing”. That would mean that I know exactly what make/model all my devices are, and pretty much know exactly what modules to load and what to configure. If I was that keen on my computer, I would have installed Slackware instead of a relative unknown. That being said, I liked the desktop and its speed. All the points were awarded for speed, out of 5.
Puppy Linux (SlackPup) 14 It found my Wi-fi, but couldn’t configure it. It detected my Camera, offering me GUVCView. I had sound, it detected my disks and had icons for them on the desktop, detected my printer once my CAT5 was set up. It just didn’t detect my touchscreen and stylus. I still had my touchpad. For the most part I must say: nice puppy, nice puppy. Based on Slackware.
Puppy Linux (LucidPup) 14 This one is tied, but I found this ubuntu-based distro a little easier, and the desktop to be similar but with different icons. Both versions of Puppy were quite fast.
Lubuntu 8 Lubuntu fell short in a lot of areas. Couldn’t detect touch, pen, no sound, modest offering of office software, and middling in speed.
CrunchBang Linux 0 All I got was a desktop, no mouse. I could still use my keyboard to access programs, and that was about it.
Mint 14 Mint loaded and detected EVERYTHING, but at a huge cost of a clunky desktop that imposed a huge speed penalty. The mouse was not particularly well-behaved either.
When I say “everything”, I mean everything I was looking at as indicators: wireless, touch stylus, camera, sound ‘net printer detection, speed, ease of use. What I wasn’t looking at might be also important to many: screen does not flip on rotation, screen orientation not bound to the intended keys — but none of the Linux distros I tested or used in the past could do that.
TinyCore Linux 6 TinyCore (X/Wifi and Classic FLWM) detected very little, and had an interface similar to ArchBang Linux. OK for speed, but very little detected.
Damn Small Linux 0 Couldn’t even get X to work.
Vector Linux 0 May be a good, robust distro, but not on my computer. The Slackware-style character interface for configuring the video failed, as I could not use any keys from my keyboard to navigate the menus. My rating scale has no negative numbers, otherwise I would have factored in the fact that there was no live version offered, and I was forced to install to USB before trying it out. And after all this trouble (it took hours), I could not get past the video configuration, because I couldn’t navigate the character-based menu with my keyboard or mouse. It was a no-go.
Mint-Xfce 14 It also auto-detected everything like a pro, except the Wi-Fi toggle switch (so I can’t turn my Wi-Fi on – Only Windows 7 has been able to do that). The same mousing problems plague this distro as it did for the other Mint version, although there is a speed improvement.

All that said, despite the fact that Mint scored so high, and that Puppy Linux is a strong contender, and despite the fact that I am most seduced by Mint despite its slowness and erratic mouse touchpad (pen is better behaved), it looks as though there is no perfect distro available, and all of them will take some degree of work.

Searching for a small Linux

Yesterday’s and today’s grueling ordeal with a sluggish Mint installation got me to thinking: Mint isn’t really for small-scale installations. It’s meant to install on a normal PC, on the native hard drive. So, then what Linux distros are out there that could be booted from inside a USB stick? That’s when I went to the DistroWatch website, and found a “top 100” list of currently popular Linux distros.

As an asside, missing from the Top 100 are the ones that are dead and gone. The ones that I am aware of are Yggdrasil, and Corel Linux. I was surprised not to see Xandros, the OS that powers the Asus Eee mini laptops and mobile devices. I would have imagined that they would be big. It is hard to say how big, since they are not publically traded.

Back the the main subject, I decided to get a list of the most popular distros in the past 12 months including August 2012. I made notes of some scattered distros, and I thought I would share these notes with you in case you are new to Linux and wanted to know which distros are popular and why, as well as knowing some other trivial facts I found about them. I have found many distributions that promise to fit the bill for my small installation over Mint, enough of them that I was happy to just leave the list partly annotated, since I have no time to be totally thorough.

The Top 100 Linux Distros, according to DistroWatch (Aug 2011-Aug 2012)

1 	Mint 	3698>
        MINT Linux
		an offshoot of Ubuntu, which is an offshoot of Debian.
		Based in Ireland, currently the most popular distro.
		Idea was to have a desktop that users felt comfortable 
		with on a standard PC.
		It owes its popularity to its having Ubuntu's strengths
		while rejecting Ubuntu's mistakes in design, notably the
		Unity desktop, which Mint never adopted.
2 	Ubuntu 	2130>
        UBUNTU Linux
		an offshoot of Debian. Idea was to have a simple desktop
		and installation, but the controversial UNITY desktop
		only makes the most sense on a tablet with no keyboard.
		Desktop is also criticised for being too inflexible in
		configuration. Based in South Africa, and part of a
		philanthropic initiative by Mark Shuttleworth, owner of
		Canonical, an IT company which is leading the development of
		Ubuntu, now having 500 employees in 30 countries.
		A uniqe remark about Ubuntu is that upon a successful
		installation, users were greeted by a video of Nelson
		Mandela explaining the word "Ubuntu".
3 	Fedora 	1662<
        FEDORA Linux
                This is the non-commercial version of RedHat's official
                distribution. Red Hat is likely credited with inventing
                the highly configurable RPM package management system of
                which YUM is a wrapper application (YUM comes from the
                SUSE distro).
                Known for being "easy to install" while not
                disappointing more expert users.
 4 	Mageia 	1539>
        MAGEIA Linux
		The French Mandrake and Brazialian Conectiva begat Mandriva
		which begat Mageia. Mageia is the free version of
		Mandriva, also based in France.
5 	openSUSE 	1418=
	openSUSE Linux
		This is the free version of the German commercial
		distro, SUSE. openSUSE is currently getting corporate
		sponsorship from Novell. The design philosophy for SUSE
		has been similar to that of another RPM distro, RedHat.
		In my opinion, openSUSE has been been more thoughtfully
		engineered than RedHat, historically.
6 	Debian 	1343=
		This is the largest and most stable of all Linux
		distributions, and very nearly the oldest. It originated the
		DEB packagaing system, to which Ubuntu and Mint owe a
		debt. It began in 1993, a year after Linus Torvalds
		uploaded his first kernel. American founder Ian Murdock
		named it by combining his own name with his girlfriend's:
		Debra + Ian = Debian while attending university in
		Debian derives its popularity from its versatility and
		stability. But this comes at the price of users having
		to make do with older packages, which have had time to
		be debugged. 
7 	Arch 	1192<
        ARCH Linux
                A Canadian Linux distro, in development since at least
                2002. Uses a strange tarball *.tar.xz which its package
                manager, pacman, understands. Not for beginners, but
                also reasonably laid out.
                This is for those seeking a minimal installation, which
                is often useful for some machines and situations.
                Noticeably gone from this list are the other Canadian
                distros that once had their heyday: Corel Linux, and
                even Xandros are both gone. Both of these were based in
8       CentOS 	978= 		
                CentOS was developed as a Poor Man's RedHat Enterprise
                Linux. The goal is to provide an Enterprise-level Linux
                distribution to those with little or no money to afford
                such a system. So, unless you want a large-scale
                computer system for a business you are running, maybe
                you should look elsewhere. 
9 	Puppy 866=
        PUPPY Linux
                As the name might suggest to you, this one is for
                small-scale distributions. That is, the kind of
                distribution where you can boot from a USB stick or even
                a re-writeable multisession CD or DVD. It can also use
                the old-school ZIP drives, and even floppies.
                The operating system is meant to load into RAM, making
                programs run very fast. Development started in Australia
                since 2006. 
10 	PCLinuxOS 	812>
		An American Live CD distro, is Debian-based, with most
		sound cards and video configured out-of-the-box. Has
		been active since 2005.
11 	Lubuntu 	710=
		Another UBUNTU offshoot, which has been developed
		jointly in France and Taiwan. Made to run on systems
		with low resources, such as netbooks, mobile devices,
		and older computers. In active development since 2010.
12 	Ultimate 	647=
		Ultimate Edition is the offshoot of Debian and Mint,
		aimed at creating an easy to install, feature-rich
		operating system, with support for a wide range of
		recent technologies.
13 	Sabayon 	632=
14 	FreeBSD 	627>
		FreeBSD is not a Linux system, although both derive from
		the original UNIX developed at AT&T labs around 1970.
		While BSD is not the biggest or the smallest or the
		easiest to work with, BSD UNIX and its freely available
		FreeBSD Unix have won wide acclaim for being the most
		secure and stable UNIX distribution ever built. It must
		be said quickly that FreeBSD and GNU/Linux (pick any
		distro you like) have different licensing, but yes, both
		are free for anyone to use.
		BSD is also known as Berkeley Unix, and is arguably the
		oldest surviving traditional UNIX system in existence.
		It is widely used as the operating system for Internet
		servers such as websites and mail servers. 
15 	Chakra 	606>
16 	Slackware 	585>
		And Slackware is the only surviving GNU/Linux distro that is
		older than Debian. Slackware, another American compilation
		from Subgenius Church Member, Deadhead and Homebrewer
		Patrick Volkerding, who now works as the sole full-time
		employee of the Slackware Distribution (although there
		are several volunteers). 
		Slackware, named after the "Slackers" from the Church of
		the Subgenius used to have many slacker references such
		as images of J. R. Bob Dobbs showing up on screensavers,
		and the pipe-smoking cameo of Dobbs printed on some of
		the early CDs. 
		Volkerding also makes his living from several books he
		has written on Linux. He is a widely-respected writer.
		Slackware is likely the only distro that has no real
		package manager. All software packages in Slackware come
		in traditional UNIX "tar" archives known as "tarballs",
		which, if they are not initially installed, must be
		installed using gunzip piped through a tar command as in
			gunzip (package_name).tgz | tar xvf -
		on a command line.
		This means that if you want to install software, you
		must read through all the documentation and configure
		much of the installation by hand (you ought to be doing
		that anyway, but in Slackware this is ciritical). This
		might require several trials, and several trips to forums,
		websites and blogs. Also, the command line, and not the
		windows system, is your friend. And if you survive that, you
		have earned yourself the right and privelage to call yourself
		a true UNIX guru.
		All that said, I can still say that, even in the 21st
		century, the minimum system requirement for a Slackware
		installation is still an 80486 computer, probably the
		most modest requirement I have seen for any distro in
		this age of quad-core Pentium processors. In addition, I am
		given the impression that you still need a floppy to
		boot into the installation (but not into an installed
17 	Zorin 	577>
18 	Bodhi 	566=
19 	Mandriva 	473<
                Mandrake became the subject of a trademark dispute with
                Hearst Corporation (owners of Mandrake the Magician (King
                Features Syndicate)) resulting the subsequent move to acquire
                Conectiva and call themselves Mandriva in 2005.
                A French-based RPM Distribution (Conectiva was
                Brazilian). Mandriva Linux is now a commercial distro.
20 	Gentoo 	473=
        GENTOO Linux
                An American distro that has been around for some time. It
                uses a unique package management called Portage which
                seems to require an extensive pre-existing knowledge of
                UNIX commands. Also, the package files are in tarballs,
                but at least you have Portage. 
21 	Fuduntu 	460=
                So, what do you get when you cross Fedora with UBUNTU?
                Fuduntu! This American alternative distro is an attempt
                to find a happy medium between the two more famous
                distributions. In case you're wondering, it comes from
                Fedora, so it uses RPM packages. It purports to be
                optimized for portable computers, netbooks, and
22 	Pear 	455>
		If you want your PC to look like you're running MAC OSX, then
		you need this French flavour of Linux. Also has multimedia
		support out of the box.
23 	Pinguy 	423=
24 	Vector 	418>
25 	PC-BSD 	414=
		Headed by Kris Moore, this BSD alternative is an attempt
		to make the installation of BSD more user-friendly,
		something which is badly needed for the BSD community.
26 	CrunchBang 	412=
		A live CD Linux distro from the UK, made to be small and
27 	Xubuntu 	397=
		Another Ubuntu descendant which uses a lightweight
		windows system and is made to run on low-end equipment.
28 	Kubuntu 	393>
		Ubuntu for fans of the KDE Desktop.
29 	Scientific 	381<
                This is actually a re-compiled version of RHEL, used by
                the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and the
                European Laboratory for Nuclear Research (CERN). This
                distro is downloadable and installable. It also uses the
                Andrew Filesystem (OpenAFS). As of this writing, it is
                unclear what the licensing is, due to its connection
                with RHEL (Red Hat Enterprise Linux). 
30 	Tiny Core 	380=
                One of the smallest distros I've heard of, the American
                TinyCore boasts a memory space of 10 MB for its desktop,
                and can run a variety of window managers. 
31 	ArchBang 	375>
		ArchBang Linux is a lightweight version of ArchLinux.
		Made for desktop and portable systems, and uses OpenBox
		as its window manager.
32 	KNOPPIX 	342<
                KNOPPIX is a bootable CD, perhaps the first of its kind
                since Yggdrasil Linux, (the latter no longer exists). Great
                for people who want to see what Linux does and to try things
                out without installing.  Not so great if you want to do 
                meaningful work on it, since it is a read-only filesystem
                (namely your CD or DVD). Debian-based, but it doesn't matter,
                since you are not changing anything on your computer.
                Distribution is based in Germany and is headed by Klaus 
                Knopper. There have been many live distros since. 
33 	Snowlinux 	338>
		A German subset of Debian.
34 	Red Hat 	332=
        This American distro is the granddaddy of the RPM managers, and
	has fallen from favour since now you have to pay for this
	distro. People wanting free stuff have to download Fedora.
35 	BackTrack 	328<
36 	ClearOS 	315=
37 	GhostBSD 	300=
		The first BSD I've heard of that boots off a live CD.
		Also, this is the second Canadian BSD distro so far.
		Ghost descended from FreeBSD and uses GNOME as its main
		desktop. In development since 2010, led by Eric Turgeon
		and Nahuel Sanchez.
38 	Salix 	288<
39 	antiX 	281=
40 	MEPIS 	271<
41 	Commodore 	266=
                Linux for Commodore Enthusiasts. It is 64-bit, so it 
                won't run on an actual Commodore computer. American. 
42 	Dreamlinux 	264= 
43 	Peppermint 	262= 
44 	SolusOS 	256>
45 	Frugalware 	253=
46 	Ubuntu Studio 	250<
47 	FreeNAS 	249=
48 	Dream Studio 	249< 
49 	Unity 	247= 
50 	Tails 	247= 
51 	ROSA 	228>
52 	Parted Magic 	227=
53 	SliTaz 	221=
54 	ZevenOS 	214=
55 	Clonezilla 	209=
56 	wattOS 	208>
57 	Oracle 	208< 
58 	BackBox 	208= 
59 	Porteus 	196= 
60 	Macpup 	189>
61 	Solaris 	187=
		Solaris UNIX is the last of the 3 UNIX clones in this
		list, the other two being Linux and BSD. Solaris
		predates Linux by about 5 or so years, but BSD is older
		than either one. Solaris was free for a while but became
		proprietary again when Oracle bought the rights to it in
		2009 from Sun Microsystems.
62 	Netrunner 	184=
63 	AriOS 	184=
64 	Kororaa 	183=
65 	Deepin 	182=
66 	siduction 	178>
67 	Zenwalk 	176< 
68 	OpenBSD 	174=
        OpenBSD UNIX
                This has been active since 1995, and is based in
                Calgary, Alberta. Descended from BSD Unix, the
                insistence of project leader Theo de Raadt was on code
                correctness, high-quality documentation, and open-source
                licensing has made it a stable and secure alternative to
                Linux. OpenBSD has been compiled for 17 different
                processors, spanning PCs, Macs, PowerPCs, SPARC
                stations, and VAX machines.
69 	Semplice 	168>
70 	OS4 	166>
71 	DragonFly 	165=
72 	AV Linux 	164=
73 	Absolute 	162=
74 	SalineOS 	161>
75 	aptosid 	161=
76 	PureOS 	159=
77 	Calculate 	157=
78 	Linpus 	156=
79 	SUSE 	154=
		Germany's SUSE's offering for enterprise-level,
		mission-critical operating systems. Uses RPM and currently
		has the stuffing knocked out of them by Red Hat, which uses
		the same RPM system. 
80 	Joli OS 	154=
81 	SystemRescue 	153=
82 	Super OS 	152=
83 	Mythbuntu 	148=
84 	TinyMe 	147=
85 	MINIX 	146=
86 	Legacy 	144=
87 	LPS 	139=
88 	Fusion 	139=
89 	Toorox 	137=
90 	linuX-gamers 	131=
91 	DoudouLinux 	131=
92 	ALT 	130=
93 	Alpine 	130=
94 	Trisquel 	129=
95 	Parsix 	129=
96 	LuninuX 	129>
97 	Yellow Dog 	127=
		I wouldn't bother with a Linux OS that has been
		relegated to #97, but Yellow Dog is notable for being
		intended specifically for Mac users, specifically those
		macs that use a PowerPC processor. Since that is a
		fairly limited audience, that would be a compelling
		reason why it is ranking so low in popularity.
		For the record, they have now included a second target
		processor: the PS3, aimed at X-boxes and Playstations.
98 	DEFT 	125=
99 	Lunar 	123>
100 	KahelOS 	123=

Installing Linux Mint 13.x on a USB stick

Right now, I am struggling with an installation of Mint which is slow and clunky. Of course, I am expecting a lot. I want this thing to run on a 32G thumb drive, entirely from the thumb drive, with 2Gigs of swap also on the thumb drive. I am doing this because the solid state drive on my laptop is fairly small, and there’s not really enough room to squeeze in a Linux distro.

So, I have had to put up with the installer crashing (twice), forcing me to start from scratch. But I was third time lucky and finally had a working installation. The reboot was what was expected (after telling my BIOS to look for a USB drive before looking at the internal hard drive for a boot image).

Booting into the thumb drive is slow. I should have known the bandwidth over a USB 2 connection is probably a lot less than for the internal hard drive. But in fact, everything was slow to respond to mouse clicks and the like. Even the login screen had a few seconds delay. The panel properties for the desktop, which one would think is a simple point-and-click affair, took a matter of minutes to respond when wanting to turn on or off the autohide feature for the taskbar. Getting an xterm also takes time. The most responsive part of the installation was the virtual ttys you get when you press an CTRL+ALT+F# key combination. Xterms run okay once they are running.

I was optimistic in that Mint recognized most of my hardware on my HP Thinkpad TX2, something which was a problem in the past. It even recognized my finger touch on the screen, and my webcam. And one thing I really wanted to try out was Oracle’s virtualbox, a GPL’ed vmware clone which promises to allow me to run Windows 7 from inside my Linux session.

But the setting up of virtualbox was slowed greatly due to its attempt to create a virtual disk. In fact, that pretty much made the computer useless during the setup, to the point where I gave up and rebooted. Maybe creating a 14 GB virtual disk on my thumb drive was a bad idea, but it was still about 8 gigs less than the recommended size. I think I would need to move up to at least a 64GB thumb drive and increase my swap, before I would consider making a go of that.

YouTube worked in Mozilla Firefox out of the box, but was sluggish. I dismissed the browser, and still had sound several seconds after the program terminated. Running the update manager was also worrisome, since it seems as though only a handful of sites had the requested files in the expected places, and even then, the update manager updated only slowly.

Mouse behaviour is erratic using the mousepad on the TX2, and even more so using your finger as the pointing device on the screen.

Anyway, a host of problems. If you are in my situation, best not to think of Linux unless you can afford a very large hard drive, or if you think you can get away with blowing away MS-Windows altogether.